What Wavelength Goes With a Color?
Our eyes are sensitive to light which lies in a very small region of the electromagnetic spectrum labeled "visible light". This "visible light" corresponds to a wavelength range of 400 - 700 nanometers (nm) and a color range of violet through red. The human eye is not capable of "seeing" radiation with wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. The visible colors from shortest to longest wavelength are: violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. Ultraviolet radiation has a shorter wavelength than the visible violet light. Infrared radiation has a longer wavelength than visible red light. The white light is a mixture of the colors of the visible spectrum. Black is a total absence of light.
Earth's most important energy source is the Sun. Sunlight consists of the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
(Wavelength image from Universe by Freedman and Kaufmann.)
There are many wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum the human eye cannot detect.
Energy with wavelengths too short to see is "bluer than blue". Light with such short wavelengths is called "Ultraviolet" light.
How do we know this light exists? One way is that this kind of light causes sunburns. Our skin is sensitive to this kind of light. If we stay out in this light without sunblock protection, our skin absorbs this energy. After the energy is absorbed, it can make our skin change color ("tan") or it can break down the cells and cause other damage.
Energy whose wavelength is too long to see is "redder than red". Light with such long wavelengths is called "Infrared" light. The term "Infra-" means "lower than".
How do we know this kind of light exists? One way is that we can feel energy with these wavelengths such as when we sit in front of a campfire or when we get close to a stove burner. Scientists like Samuel Pierpont Langley passed light through a prism and discovered that the infrared light the scientists could not see beyond red could make other things hot.
Very long wavelengths of infrared light radiate heat to outer space. This radiation is important to the Earth's energy budget. If this energy did not escape to space, the solar energy that the Earth absorbs would continue to heat the Earth.